NMO Diagnostic Criteria

2015 NMOSD Diagnostic Criteria

Diagnostic criteria for NMOSD with AQP4-IgG
1. At least 1 core clinical characteristic
2. Positive test for AQP4-IgG using best available detection method (cell-based assay strongly recommended)
3. Exclusion of alternative diagnoses

Diagnostic criteria for NMOSD without AQP4-IgG or NMOSD with unknown AQP4-IgG status

  1. At least 2 core clinical characteristics occurring as a result of one or more clinical attacks and meeting all of the following requirements:
  • At least 1 core clinical characteristic must be optic neuritis, acute myelitis with LETM, or area postrema Syndrome
  • Dissemination in space (2 or more different core clinical characteristics)
  • Fulfilment of additional MRI requirements, as applicable
  1. Negative tests for AQP4-IgG using best available detection method, or testing unavailable
  2. Exclusion of alternative diagnoses

Core clinical characteristics
1. Optic neuritis
2. Acute myelitis
3. Area postrema syndrome: episode of otherwise unexplained hiccups or nausea and vomiting
4. Acute brainstem syndrome
5. Symptomatic narcolepsy or acute diencephalic clinical syndrome with NMOSD-typical diencephalic MRI lesions
6. Symptomatic cerebral syndrome with NMOSD-typical brain lesions

Additional MRI requirements for NMOSD without AQP4-IgG and NMOSD with unknownAQP4-IgG status

1. Acute optic neuritis: requires brain MRI showing (a) normal findings or only nonspecific white matter lesions, OR (b) optic nerve MRI with T2-hyperintense lesion or T1-weighted gadolinium enhancing lesion extending over .1/2 optic nerve length or involving optic chiasm

2. Acute myelitis: requires associated intramedullary MRI lesion extending over 3 contiguous segments (LETM) OR 3 contiguous segments of focal spinal cord atrophy in patients with history compatible with acute myelitis

3. Area postrema syndrome: requires associated dorsal medulla/area postrema lesions4. Acute brainstem syndrome: requires associated periependymal brainstem lesions*IPND; International Panel for NMO DiagnosisWingerchuk DM, Banwell B, Bennett JL, et al. International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology 2015;85:177-189.